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History

This small Balkan country was nearly all the time under supremacy of foreign powers. Despite of this, the country created its own specific habits and culture, which is worth to be acquinted with. People say that the Albanese are descendands of Ilyrs. They appeared in Balkan in 10th century B.C. In the course of 2nd century B.C. most of Ilyr clans were subject to Romans. Four centuries of Roman hegemony mentioned economic prosperity and remarkable cultural progress. On the other hand, this territory was used for army recruitings. In 1st century, the Christianity penetrated the area inhabited by Ilyrs , and in 732, Emperor Leo III. submited this area to the patriarch of Constantinople. Fall of Western part of Empire and a period of great movements of nations brought to Balkan radical changes. The Barbarians devastated many rich Roman towns and destroyed its social and cultural order and let here ostentatious aqueducts, churches and ways in ruins. The original Ilyr population successively disappeared and new waves of  immigrants came. Thanks to protection of its mountains, mutually joined clans and toughness of their members, the Albanese createt theit own identity and a language. First notice about Albanese and Albania appeared in a moment, when  Byzantine Emperor Alexius I. Comneus needed in 1081 to protect the territory populated by Albanese before Normans vessels, supported with Vatican. However,  the weakness of Byzantin  Empire caused that Albania came under control of Serbia , occupying northern and eastern part of Albania within 12th century. Consequently, Albania was tossed about rivalling clans. This fact weakened the country in such way that the nation was not able to resist the outer danger. When in 1204 the crusaders conquested Constantinople, Venice Empire obtained a control in central and southern part of Albania. The successor of Byzantine throne, Michael Comneus, concluded alliance with Albanian chiefs, and with their support  expelled Venice families from southern Albania and northern Greece. In the second half of 13th century, Charles I. Anjou conquested the town of Durres together with essential part of central Albania . This new dominion was names The Kingdom of Albania, however, this state formation ceased to exist in 1336. In the middle of 13th century, Stephen Dušan, powerful King of Serbia, seized most of Balkan, including Albania. Success of his powerful expansion increased his self-consciousness, so he let to be crowned  as an Emperor of Serbians, Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians. Anyway, Dušan´s  death hindered his expansionism in his expedition to Constantinople. His empire crumbled shortly after his death, and Albanian as well as Serbian aristocracy divided its territory. Bals Family was one of most powerful, dominating the north, and Thopias Family, reigning the central part of the country.  South Albania was under control of Serbian commander Thomas Preliubovic. Continuous wars brought Albanians  poverty and bad harvest only. This situation  meant  that within 14th century many people left its native country and emigrated into Epirus mountains or to Greek towns or to Greek islands. The Albanian exils established also communities  in southern Italy and Sicilly. The battle at Savra, realized in 1385, mentioned a start of Turkish hegemony. In middle of 15th century, when Gjerj Kastrioti ( known under nickname of  Skanderberg) united with several Albanian sovereigns, and expelled Turks  for thirty five years. When Osmans (Turks) returned, further emigration wave followed, this time to Italy, Greece and Egypt. At the end of 19th century, on Balkan started to be established various national nationalism. The Albanese were formed mostly from Moslems , so, no wonder, that they were last of Balkan nations having the wish to be disunited (separated) from Osman Empire. The Albanian leaders established so called „Prizren league“ in 1878 , protected by Sultan Abdulhamid II. They had the intention to save their country from greedy territorial requirements from part of their neighhbours. Following years were characteristic with increasing disturbances. At the end of first Balkan war, it culminated with uprising in Albanian part of Osman empire. When Serbia, Montenegro and Greece asked  their requirements for territory of Albania, the Albanese declared their independence. Great European Allied Powers  agreed it in 1913, and ruler of the country became German Prince William of Wied.

First World War meant instantaneous collapse for young Albania. The country was seized by Austria, Montenegro, Greece, Italy and France. After a war, Albania was still occupied with Serbian and Italian forces, however they were expelled  by Albanian people. They resisted heroistic against them. First years were for new established state in sign of political instability, moreover, The Italian and Yugoslavs had the intention to occupy Albania.

In 1939, Italy with his leader Mussolini effected an invasion into Albania. In a country, there was formed against them especially left-handed resistance in such way that , after a war, the country was considered as victorian state. However, the rule was in hands of communists, leading by Enver Hodža, supported with Great Britain and United States. In the course of his rule, there was  started industrialisation development. Many factories and railways were built, however, Albania was in position of agricultural country. As far as foodstuffs are concerned, Albania was self-sufficient country. at that time. However, Hodža started to liquidate his political opposition. He loaned for his regime a Stalinistic model from Soviet Union. He developed his personality cult and promoted himself as infallible leader. In 1961, when Soviet leader Khruscov  left Stalinism model, Hodža took Soviet regime as bad and established diplomatic relations with China. When he died in 1985, a grandious funeral was taken place on his honour. After his death, there were resound voices requesting changes. Hodža´s successor, Ramiz Alia, started to establish diplomatic relations with other countries. First of all with Yugoslavia, followed with Greece, successively with all western countries. In 1991, there were effected first democratic elections, with participation of more parties. However, communist regime finished in 1992, when most of votes obtained Democratic Party. Frankly speaking, Albania was at the beginning of economy collapse. The government had to solve all problems, gathered during communist era. This situation meant that tens of thousands of Albanese people emigrated, mostly to Italy and Greece. The population was menaced with hunger as the farmers could not, owing to plundering of  warehouses, cultivate their fields, as  seed-corn missed. In 1998, the Albanese obtained a constitution, securing them democratic rules and human rights maintenance.

 

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