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History

The name FRANCE comes from Latin word of Francia, i.e. the country where the Francs are living. It is important that the borders of today´s France are approximately the same as the territory of ancient Galia. This country way conquested, during first half century B.C., by genial Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar ( the nickname Caesar comes from Cartagian language and means the word „elephant“. His grandfather got it in honour of the fact  that he personally killed the elephant during Puna Wars.).  Later,  the Galians accepted Latin language, and French language developed as a consequence and improvement of these,  and  Roman culture was taken for their own culture. So, France became fully christianized within 5th century A.D. St.Hieronymus noted that this was „the only country where the heresion is missing“.

The 4th century takes also its important period in the history of France. At that time, German tribes of Francs came to the territory. Later, the Francs transferred to Catholic religion, and the country got a title of „the oldest daughter of the Church“. Caroline dynasty ruled here till 987, when Hugo Capet, Duke of Paris, was crowned as a King. Between time period 1337-1453, France was in war with England ( so called one hundred years´ war) There exists a couple of reasons , why the war broke out.  It was, first of all, a dispute regarding a supremacy in  Flanders. The rights of Edouard III., regarding French throne,were not accepted, and dispute regarding hegemony in Flanders begun. The war broke out after a moment, when Phillippe VI., French King, attacked French dominions. No doubt that Crecy battle belongs to to most important struggles. The Englismen , with troops of twenty thousands of men won overwhelmingly over four-times higher French superiority.  The attention would be merited so called „Battle of Thirty Knights“ (which took place, within scope over Brittany Dukedom, and thirty knights, yeomen and chamiopns of knights´struggles participated in).  At that time period, this combat was taken for best example of  knighthood . The troubadours sung about and the whole story was written and described in Froissart Chronicle. Last struggle of this war was effected near to the communiity of Castillon. Here, the victory was decided with using the guns, as for the first time in European history. In general, this war brought many improvements, as far as the „war art“ was concerned. So, for instance, the enlargement of modern weapons meant that  not only the knights but also soldiers of the line played their important role in struggles. However, the war extremely exhausted both parts. Nevertheless, the French succeeded to push back the Englishmen from their country ( with the exception of the town of Calais, this fact was succeeded in 1558).

The monarchy entered its power sunny side in the course of 17th century, during rule of Louis XIV. His people was most numerous in Europe at that time. The power as well as the wealth of his government was represented by Versailles Chateau. However, the power of Kings finished in 1789. This event entered the history as Great French Revolution. King Louis XIV. and his wife, Mary Antoinette, were executed. Later, in 1799, quite unknown person from Corsica – Napoleon Bonaparte-  took the power in the republic. At first, he nominated himself as consul, later he declared as an Emperor. He crowned himself, on this occasion. ( this event is pictured in famous David painting). Napoleon´s imperium spreaded all the time in the meantime. However, his Russian campaign meant a finish of his great powerful ambitions. After a couple of  retreating battles, he finally fell in seizure  and was expelled to Elba Island. When he returned, he tried to re-new his power, for the last time, but the battle at the community of Waterloo in 1815, caused his definitive defeat.

The 20th century was for French history the most bloody one., especially in case of 1st World War. Despite the fact that France won it, together with other understanding states, this victory was really terrible. Later, the 2nd World War was lost for France just before when it could start. The Germans went round famous Maginotte Line, and the whole country was occupied. At the same time, there was established in the town of Vichy, (south-west France) a puppet state, led by old Marshal Petain. It is necessary to note that French revolt made Germans serious trouble and helped allied disembarkment in Normandy on 6th June 1944. After a war, the Fourth republic was established, followed, since 1958, by the Fifth republic, which is actual till now. It is characteristic with its Presidential regime , where the President himself has outstanding competences.

At present, France is a member of European Union, and since 1999, a member of Eurozone.

 

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