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General Information

Official name:                           The State of Israel

International sign:                   IL

State organization:                  Republic

The highest representant:    President

Administrative division:         6 regions

Capital:                                       Jerusalem

Extent:                                        22 145 square kilometres

Extra water surfaces:             474 square kilometres (Galilea Sea 164 square kilometres,

                                                    Dead Sea 310 square kilometres)

Population number:                7,184 mil. (2007), from total it is 79% of Jews         

Population density:                 324/one square kilometer

Official language:                     Hebrew and Arabian

 

Geography

Israel could be divided into four geographical complexes. All parts are passing from north to the south, cut with valleys from time to time. The valleys serve as important traffic lines of communication from ancient times. From west towards the east, these are as follows: Mediterranean Coast, Central Highlands, Jordan Valley and Arava.

 

Climate

The climate is mainly subtropical, in north rather moderate and in south and in a part of Jordan Valley tropical. The precipitation is rich in the north and minimal in the south (718 mm in a year for Safed and 25 mm in Eilat). High humidity and moderate winter dominate alonng Mediterranean coast. On the other hand, very cold winter prevails in mountaneous areas (just, for instance, in Jerusalem). Hot dry summer and pleasant winter periods are typical for Jordan Valley. Extreme temperature differences between day and night dominate in deserts.

 

Hydrography

Israel is characteristic as a Country of Four Seas - i.e. Mediterranean, Dead and Red Seas, and Tiberiade Lake. The name of the lake is derived from Tiberaias town on its west bank. Jordan river is flowing through, and its river is watered with torrents from Golan Highlands. The lake forms nature reservoir of fresh water, giving a profit for the whole country. Regarding ports: Haifa is the greatest one. Eilat, situated in Aqaba Bay at Red Sea, is the second important port. This place became one of several motifs of two Israeli-Arabian conflicts (1956 and 1967).

 

Nature

You can find more than 150 nature reservations in the country (on surface of nearly 3500 square kilometres). Many of them try to maintain or re-new original fauna and flora, known from the Bible, such as: Neot Kedumim („original beauties“) in the centre of the country, or Chaji Bar („life wilderness“), specialized for dry-loving flora and fauna.

 

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Israel

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