Official name: Canada
Extent: 9 984 670 square kilometres
Population number: 32 547 200 (2006)
Official language: English and French
State organization: The Constitutional Monarchy, Member of Commonwealth
Main religion: Roman Catholics (43,2%), without any confession (16,2%) other religions (25,6%)
The highest point (top): Mount Logan, Yukon (5959 m)
Time: Central European Time – 6 hours
Canada borders in south with United States of America, concretely (from the east to the west)they are the states as follows: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho and Washington In the north, a lot of Arctic Islands, penetrating up to North Ice Ocean, belong to Canada. East coast of the country is washed out with Atlantic Ocean, whereas west coast is washed out with Pacific Ocean. Nearly a half of Canadian headland is formed with Canadian Peak (surrounding Hudson Bay). Canada is consisted of ten provinces and three territories.
The Provinces are as follows:
Alberta, British Colombia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, New Scotland, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Sascatchewan. To the Territories belong: Nort-West Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
Owing to very extensive territory, Canada could not be synonymously compared to some typical climatic belt. Inside the area of Canadian Peak, the climate is predominantly continental, from the area to another region, it is essentially changing. Nevertheless, the more you are destined for the north, the climate is colder, but more warmer areas could be found there, too (as, for instance, Sudbury at south point of Canadian Peak, where the temperature reaches 24 °C in summer). The precipitation is nearly at the same level in this area, but it is more intensive in eastern direction. The area of Great Lakes and the plains of St. Lawrence River present continental time period. The precipitation of this area makes 70-100 mm in a year. In summer, rather big closeness prevails, especially in towns. In general, the temperatures in South Ontario are higher as in South Quebec. The highest temperatures in Toronto reach approx. 27 °C. The Atlantic Provinces are famous through their coastal fogs, which are creating all year round. The reason for it, there are striking Labrador streams with warm air above the Gulf Stream. There are prevailing rather moderate temperatures – in Halifax from 23 °C in summer to - 7 °C in winter. The precipitation at east coast of Canada is lower as in west coast. The average precipitation in Atlantic Provinces makes approx. 100 cm in a year.
Canadian countryside - it is splendour itself! It is characterized with thousands of smaller and bigger lakes, surrounded with rocky or afforested mountains. At cliffs and inside river-beds, the granite is placed. You can find there afforested areas which cover thousands of square kilometres. It is formed mainly by pines, cedars, plough-tails and aspens. Just the forests belong to main Canadian natural wealth, they are extended throughout the whole country in a belt of 500-2000 kilometres, covering nearly 40% of state surface. Just the wealth of fish allured to Canada the first Europeans, and the fishing was, till 1993, an important economic branch. The fish is caught, such as salmons, but, as a consequence of excessive fishing, the government decided that some sorts of fish will be limited (cod-fish). As far as the raw materials are concerned, it is, first of all, the petrol, earth gas, coal and iron ore. Canada belongs to biggest producers of zinc and titanium.
When we overlook the French and British, the ancestors of today´s Canadians, these are Germans, Italians, Ucrainians, Japanese, Chinese, Inuits, aborigine Indians and other nationalities. Double-languages was enacted in 1969: both languages (English and French) were introduced in all administrative public services (even all goods must be supplied with inscriptions in two languages). Anyway, the colonization is distinctly inequal, as great part of population is living close to east coast, or up to 160 kilometres distant from the American border. So, big density of population is to be found, first of all, in corridors Quebec-Windsor, Calgary-Edmonton and in Lower Mainland area. On the contrary, enormous territory areas in the north are colonized very scarcely. Most of Canada population confess Christianity. Roman Catholic Church belongs to strogest one, as 43,2% of population accept this religion. To non-Christian religions belong Islam (2%). On the other hand, 16,2% of population do not confess any relogion.
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