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Permanent state formation appeared in German territory at the beginning of 10th century. At that time, East-Frank Empire collapsed into tribe dukedoms, such as: Saxonia, Bavaria, Lothringen and Franken. Nevertheless, each dukedoms were united again by Henry, Saxonian King. In 962, Ota I. was coronated, as the first German Emperor, in Aix-la-Chapelle. So, Holy Empire of German Nation was established. At first, the Emperors leant their power against the Pope, however, this fact caused later many disputes. Nevertheless, at the beginning of 12th century, new towns were founded, close to old citadels, castles, Bishops´ palaces or monasteries. The towns started to require specific rights and liberties, and some of them became so free, so that they were independent on Bishops or Princes, and were adherent directly to the Emperor. Later, in 1517, reformation movement started. Martin Luther hung on church´s door in the town of Wittenberg his 95 propositions. His teaching begun quickly to be extended, and Luther, hidden in Wartburg Castle, made the translation of Holy Bible. In 1545, the Anti-reformation movement was founded, and Jesuit Order became its main power.

After 30.years´war, the Empire was crumbled into many hundreds of small states. Later, within 17th and 18th centuries, the collapse of the country continued. From nearly drooping empire, there was appeared a state, which meant new golden epoque of German countries. It was Brandenburg-Prussia. The governor, Frederick of Brandenburg, was crowned in 1701 as the King of Prussia. His son, Frederick William I. made from Prussia highly centralized state, with powerful support of army. Hubertsburgs Peace, signed among Saxonia, Prussia and Austria  on 18th Fevruary 1763, meant a finish of Seven Years´ War, and Prussia resulted from these negotiations as new European power. At that time, Prussia-Austrian rivalry begun, regarding influence over German countries. Nevertheless, Napoleon Bonaparte did a finish for this Empire. So, Holy Roman Empire perished formally to exist on 6th August 1806, when Frank II., last Empire, abdicated.

After Napoleon´s Wars, German Confederation was established on the territory of former Holy Empire of German Nations. It was free union of 39 states under Austrian leadership, including Parliament, met in the town of Frankfurt/Main. In 1834, Custom Union between Prussia and most of German States, was established.

Within 19th century, the rivalry between Prussia and Austria influenced German policy. On the other hand, Prussia had decisive influence for all remaining German states. In 1871, German Empire was declared, involving twenty-five states. Three of them were free Hansa towns. As a result, it was so called „Small-German Solution“, not involving Austria. The disputes between Germany and Austro-Hungarian Empire started to be diminuished. During 1st World War, both states struggled together. When the war was over, Germany was forced to pay immense reparations. So, Weimar Republic was established, with semi-President system, however, the republic lasted for 15 years only.

On 27th February 1933, Hitler let to burn down Reichstag, and the Communists were accused that they caused this fire. Within the scope of this fact, Hitler forced President Hindenburg to sign a document, removing de facto political and human rights from Weimar Constitution. Moreover, Communist agitation was forbidden. Thanks to negative picture, which the Communists obtained, NSDAP managed to get majority during last free elections in May 1933. Hitler started to concentrate in his hands all power. It was started with an action, which could give the government all legislative competences. During 1934, Hitler made „ventilations“ inside SA. It was effected especially owing to the fact that Ernst Rohm, SA leader, wished to unite this organisation with Wehrmacht, whereas both organisatíons could be under his direct leadership. Nevertheless, Hitler was afraid of Rohm, and charged with his SS personal guard, to execute Rohm and other high SA representatives. So, this event entred the history as „A Night of Long Knives“.

Third Reich had quite ambitious expansionistic plans and ideas, which started to be effected (realized) with occupation of Czechoslovak Sudetengau border territories. Anyway, the fulfillment of these plans was made on 1st September 1939 with military invasion to Poland. Later, six war years followed, where the first success was substituted with overwhelming defeat, which completely destroyed Third Reich. Germany, removed from Nazi era, begun new period, however, the country had to be divided. West Germany advanced the tradition of Capitalist Democratic States, whereas East Germany was inferiored of Soviet Union influence. It is true that East Germany became most advanced country among Warsawact Countries. Nevertheless, the ice-conditions between West and East Germany slowly disappeared, when Willy Brandt, West German Councellor, came with his „Eastpolitics“ conception. Finally, Germany was unified in 1989, however, mass emigration from East to West followed.

At present, Germany is hard European and world economical power. The country plays, together with France, leading role in European Union and it belongs to G7 most powerful countries.

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