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Sometimes, in the course of 6th century B.C., early Macedonian Kingdom appeared. However, it was submitted to Persian Empire soon. Anyway, this Kingdom did not played any substantial role in Greek-Persian wars later. Even Alexander I. the Great became the first King of Macedonia. He influenced Greek politics in an important way, adopting attica dialect and culture. Helenic influence in Macedonia increased, and the Kingdom started to be expanded unto North Greece, within the rule of Philippe II. Nevertheless, even Alexander, Philipps´ son, was registered in history in substantial way, known under name „the Great“. He was managed to conquest not only the rest of Greek territory. but he also annected Persian Empire, Egypt and he finished his expansion even in India. Nevertheless, shortly after his death, this colossal Empire collapsed.

However, independent Macedonia came to nought, when Roman Empire seized this territory in the course of 2nd century B.C. It is obvious that Macedonia did its best to protect it, however, after three lost wars, the country was defeated by Romans definitely. Anyway, when Roman Empire collapsed, Macedonia came under Byzantium rule. Owing to Visigots´and Huns´ invasions within 4th and 5th century A.D., Macedonian population decreased. Shortly afterthat, the invasion of Slaves came. They tried to settle there during 7th century and started to form population majority quickly. Most of population inhabitated north part of the country, nevertheless, unneglected number was settled in agricultural areas of north part Greek Macedonia.

At the end of 10th century, the area of actual Macedonia became a political as well as cultural centre of the First Bulgarian Empire. However, the Bulgarians suffered from heavy defeats from Byzantians, and so, they joined Macedonia and Bulgaria into their Empire. Consequently, the revolts of Slave population followed, supported by Serbians from north.

During 12th century, Macedonia became slowly a part of Serbian Imperium, and took the same position as North and Central Greece. When Serbian Empire collapsed, the Ottomans wished to occupy complete Balkan Peninsula. They managed to destroy Christian coalition of Serbians, Bulgarians and Greeks. After battle at Marica-river in 1371, Macedonia became Ottomans´ vassal, and later, at the end of 14th century, the area was joined to Ottoman Empire for next 500 years. Turkish minority was established there in the course of this time period. Within 19th century, the Greeks, Serbians and Bulgarians tore off degenerating Ottoman Empire, and founded their own states. However, Macedonia became a rivalry subject  among these parties. Within 1890-1900, rivals´ army groups were founded, struggling against Turks and against each other at the same time. After 1st World War, Macedonia was joined into SHS Kingdom (Serbian-Croatian-Slovenian Kingdom), and within 1920-1930, the country was subjected hard „Serbian pressure“. When 2nd World War came, great part of Yugoslav Macedonia was occupied by German military units, wheras the other part of Macedonia was given into Bulgaria administration. The country was liberalized in 1944, when Red Army troops forced Germans to left the territory.

When the war was over, Macedonian People´s Democratic Republic was declared, and the country became a part of Tito´s Yugoslavia. In 1963, after Yugoslavian „socialisation“, also Macedonia  added a title of „Socialist“, cancelled later definitely, when the country separated and became independent in 1991. So, the date of 8th September is celebrated as an Independence Day. During Kosowo War in 1999, Macedonia was rather destabilized by enormous wave of ethnical Albanians, escaping from Kosowo. Moreover, the Albanian radicals tried to get the autonomy of these areas at the end of Kosowo War, where the Albanian majority lived. However, at the beginning of 21st century, in 2001, civil war among Albanian radicals and the Government broke out, and it was finished after NATO military groups intervention. In 2005, Macedonia became candidate country for European Union Membership.

Text: Maxim Kucer

Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš

Photo: google



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