CZ: An Important And Interesting Castle
Doubravka-river flows through the locality. The community has approx 1200 inhabitants. Small village of Bezděkov (with 70 inhabitants only) forms a quarter of Úsov.
The history of Úsov is closely joined with local castle, constructed within first half of 13th century, in a style of French castel, i.e. including massif cylindrical towers, connected with fortification. First notice about the castle comes of 1260. Anyway, since 1276, the castle was directly in possession of the King, but, in the course of 14th century, the complex undergone a mortgage several times. During of so called „Markgrave Wars“ (break of 14th and 15th centuries), Jost Luxembourg established there his important base-line. In 1416, the castle was in possession of Vlašim Parentage. They let it to reconstruct and enlarged. Afterthat, the building came into hands of Boskovic Parentage, followed by Liechtenstein Parentage. They established in the interior forest- and hunting museum, collecting there big number of subjects from their hunting excursions to Italy, Africa or to India. Main castle palace has rectangular ground-plan and has three floors. Cylindrical tower belongs to castle´s dominanta, where even a dungeon is placed. The complex is covered with a roof in Baroque style.
Within 30-Years´ War, Úsov dominion suffered a lot from plundering. However, in 1643, the castle and surroundings were completeley destroyed by Swedish troops. Anyway, the community was recovered quickly, and even Jewish district was established there. Jewish quarter created, except its house of prayer and cemetery, also a school building for Jewish children. During 1688-1699, the area of reconstructed castle was added with a palace of Baroque style.
Later, in 1726, the complex was re-built and also parish church was enlarged. However, in the course of 19th century, the importance of Úsov dropped subsequently, as there no industrial factory was established. On the other hand, this small town was still of some importance, thanks to its handicrafts and business activities. Within period of 1938-1945 (German occupation), all Czech schools were closed and Jewish synagogue was completely plundered. Nevertheless, when the war was over, the agriculture got more importance there. So, in 1952, the agriculture (farming) cooperative was founded. Consequently, in 1974, Úsov became a centre of agriculture complex which moved in the neighbouring community of Klopina in 1982. Within 1980-1985, the reconstruction of the castle was effected, and shortly afterthat, forest-hunting museum was open for public again.
A Way of Life in the Town
Nowadays, several clubs are active in the community, such as: Carmen, mixed singing choir , Úsov Hunting Partnership, football club, Sokol gymnastic association or voluntary firemen body. In 2011, a construction of more-purpose playground with an artificial surface was finished. Petanque as well as children playgrounds were a part of relax area, including refreshment possibilities. In the future, the museum will be established in castle rooms , as a document for next generations, so that the history of the locality, its traditions, handicraft arts and habits could be kept.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation. ing. Jan Jonáš
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