A Bohemian King of Přemysl Ottakar II wished to fix his position on South Bohemia, so he had chosen this town in 1265, which, thanks to his favour increased quickly in economical way. The town was granted - for its loyalty to the King´s Crown - several King´s privileges (such as the privilege of Charles IV., giving an order to merchants to pass České Budějovice, stop and offer their goods here). On the contrary, some handicrafts were not allowed to be carried on in the circle of one mile distant of the town. The biggiest prime of the town was during 16th century, the town´s treasury became rich, especially of silver mining, beer cooking or salt-trade. At the beginning of 19th century it was established the horse-tramway railway line, connecting České Budějovice with Linz. Thanks to this fact.the local trade and industry developed a lot.
The story of beer cooking in České Budějovice comes to the town - foundation. The civic breweries developed in the course of 15th century from the middle-class houses. In 1495 the was, by means of town´s counsel, established a brewery. The town´s expenses were reimbursed from its profits. The tradition of beer-cooking outlasted in Budějovice up to now.
In the town you find a lot of museums. Jihočeské Museum belongs to those oldest of the region. It was established in 1877. Its standard exhibitions are specialised for the history of horse-tramway railway, folk painted furniture. artistic black-smith´s and lock-smith´s activity. The seat of the museum was originally in a house No. 2 on Přemysl Ottakar II. Square.The rooms and space were too small for its collections, so the museum changed its seat to a building in Dukelská street. The museum of horse-tramway railway is situated in former guard-house of horse-tramway line. It is one of smallest museums in our country.
The Přemysl Ottakar II. Square is really square, the historical centre of a town (including this square) was declared in 1980 as Town´s Monument Reservation. The houses around the square have the arcades. You find here also a Samson´s fountain in a Baroque style of 1720-1727. Not far from this fountain you find in a pavement so called „wandering stone“ marked with a cross. A pair of gallows was created on this place originally. The dominante if the square is a Black Tower, erected during 1549-1577, of 71,9 m height. In a towere there are placed 5 bells, ringing at noon every day. Not far of Blak Tower you find the Chapel of Mortal Anxieties. This chapel has a square ground-plan, situated behind the Cathedral of St.Nicholas. On this place there was previous situated the Gothic Chapel of St.James. The Cathedral of St.Nicholas is placed near by Black Tower. The gound-stone of this church was put here in 1265, the main altar was consecrated later, in 1297. The church was reconstructed several times, a bell-tower was added as an annexe, and this is a Black Tower, as mentioned before.
There are 9 cyclopaths for friends of cycling, a swimming pool, sporting ground where you can play table tennis or ball-ganes. You find many reinforce-rooms in town, there is a winter sports-stadion also.
As to important local natives: it is Vladimír Remek, the first Czech Astronaut. Mr. Pavel Šporcl, an excellent violinist, was born here, too.
Text: Miroslava Nováčková
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