In 1243 the town obtained King´s privileges from Bohemian King Wenceslas I. The town was surrounded by fortifications with five gates - Měnínská, Židovská (Jewish), Starobrněnská (Old Brno), Veselá (Funny) and Běhounská.
In 14th centrury, the town became a centre of Moravian Margraves, and just in this time period the town went through big prosperity. The town of Brno had the right of anniversary markets, so international trade developped. From this reason, it was an advantage to know the law, this brought the writing of Book of Declaration of Brno-Aldermen, compiled by Councellor Clerk John in 1355. This book became later as a law - model for many other towns.
The industry started to develop in more extensive way since 1763, when the first textile manufacture was founded. The machinery industry became also important, as the latest technologies were introduced. In 1869, the first train arrives to Brno. Anyway, with the arising trade relations and town-development the number or suburbs increased, and the town lost successively its character of fortress. At that time period, the Špilberk castle became a frightened prison place.
As to historical monuments: it is, first of all, just mentioned Špilberk Castle, established in the second half of 13th century. The part of a castle form the basement - casemates - which served as a jail.
Cathedral of St.Peter and Paul is situated on a hill, on a place of original castle. It comes of 13th century, when a basilica was constructed here. The cathedral was re-built several times in the course of last centuries.
Mahenovo Theatre was constructed according to plans of Vienna Architects in 1881-1882, its most important advantage was Edison´s lightening. Now, it forms a part of Brno National Theatre, which form further Janáčkovo Theatre and Reduta Theatre.
It is worth to visit an observatory and planetarium of Nicholas Koperník. At present, Brno is known through its fairs, alluring visitors abroad. Brno is a seat of Constitutional Court of Czech Republic.
Text: Miroslava Nováčková
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