CZ: Golčův Jeníkov
Despite the fact that any written sources regarding town´s foundation were not found, it is to be assumed that the community of Jeníkov was established sometimes during 10th century. So, the first written notice comes from 12th century, mentioning Henry Zdík, the Bishop of Olomouc, who had the intention to spend his Christmas period there in 1150 or 1151. Since 14th century, Jeníkov belonged to Chlum Parentage. Anyway, this family probably inclined toward Hussite movement during Hussite wars. This fact is supported with chalices´, pictured in Jeníkov escutcheon.
Within top Middle Age, the community became characteristic through development of handicrafts and trade. So, the village of Zábělčice (which belonged to Trčka of Lípa Parentage, to very rich of Bohemian Parentages) was joined to Jeníkov, and so, the locality was spreaded a lot. However, the town suffered from consequences of 30-years´ War, when fifteen villages in the environs were completely burnt out by soldier troops, so, such war trouble brought many difficulties to Bohemia countryside. Nevertheless, Martin Maxmillian Goltz, Emperor´s field Inspector-General of Ordonance, obtained Jeníkov dominion as a reward for his faithful services. So, this new owner settled there persistently and put foundations to many important buildings – such as: Loreta, stronghold, town hall or deanery, and this small town got again its economical and cultural swing. Martin Goltz asked Jesuit´s Order of Kutná Hora, that the representants of this Order came to his dominion, so very educated men, such as: Frederick Bridel, Anthony Konias or Stanislaus Vydra came there. The Jesuits deserved well that the tradition of three great Virgin Mary Pilgrimages were organized there, and the economy of this small town was of good use. At that time period, even the attribute „Golčův“ was introduced, arisen as disfiguration of the name „Goltz“.
However, Goltz had no inheritor, and after his death, the dominion changed several owners. Within 18th century, when Golčův Jeníkov was in possession of Krakowsky of Kolowrat Parentage, the industrial production started to develop there. So, state factory for tobacco production was established on place of former castle, and later, the factory for production of needles was founded, the first one of such type in Europe. In the second half of 18th century, Golčův Jeníkov had new school building, which substituted old building of Simon Samowsky. However, in 1874, the town was nearly completely destroyed by destructive fire, which liquidated half of all buildings, Loreta chapel as well as deanery building.
After death of Leopold Krakowsky of Kolowrat, hard disputes regarding dominion ownership broke out. This fact rebounded for town´s economy in negative way, as tobacco factory was transferred to Kutná Hora and needle factory was closed for ever.
During early 19th century, when the dominion was in possession of Countess of Trautmannsdorf, new modern brewery was established in castle area. Even the next owner, Frederick von Neupauer, added to economical welfare with a fact that he managed to get the privilege (from Emperor Ferdinand V. the „Gracious“) to organize six annual markets in a year. So, a trade as well as handicrafts workshops were very prosperous in the town.
At present, Golčův Jeníkov could be proud on many interesting monuments. It is, first of all, Old Post Office Building (even W. A. Mozart, famous musical composer, slept there on straw mattress in 1789, when he travelled from Vienna), Loreta, deanery, town hall, castle area, St. Margarethe Church, parish church of St. Frank Seraph or Goltz stronghold, where you can find a gallery with pictures of 19th and 20th centuries or various antique objects.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: Ing. Jan Jonáš
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