Do You Know That? The Smallest Exotic Statest Of The World II.
Whereas Macao, mentioned in our previous chapter, was, regarding its extention, reallly small state, its area was completely used up to the last space. This rich town with many casinos will be replaced this time with small islands.
So, this time, the island of Nauru will represent the smallest island. In the island, you can find a republic of the same name, which is the smallest island state, and the republic of the whole world. Regarding its extent, it belongs to group of islands, bearing the proper name of Micronesia – Oceania, located in south direction from Marshall Islands.
However, its recent history, dated since 1798, when the island was discovered by John Fearn, British seafarer, is not too positive. Despite the fact that the discoverer named the area as „pleasant island“, local history is connected, first of all, with wolrld wars, and also with negative mining of phosphates. So, approx. 13 thousands of inhabitants are forced to fight every day against consequences of non-regulated phosphate mining - i.e. salt of phosphate acids, important staff composition of biochemistry, especially important for dung production. The phosphates are, from its origin, an accumulation of birds´ dirt - rich on phosphorus and magnesia, which covered in heavy sediments extensive areas. However, great part of such infested small island is practically uninhabited, as a consequence of poison infestment. The excavation was effected there just since 1900. Within past ten years, phosphates stocks get shorter, and so, standard of living of island inhabitants dropped. In past, till 1970, local way of life, was a paradise of the earth, as all things were, thanks to foreign trade with such valuable raw material, practically free of charge, starting with school education, health care, absence of taxes, high pensions, etc. At present, local inhabitants are in front of state bankrupcy or a risk of constrained emigration to another islands, close to Australian coast. When money disappeared, only devastated countryside and state debts remained. Till now, these debts were not liquidated, as a consequence of bad politics. So, Australia established there even detention camps for their prisoners and immigrants.
Nauru is also the only state, where the capital is officially missing, but the country has its own Parliament and President. As the most important business partners, these are China, Australia and Tchai-wan.
From geographical and geological point of view, Nauru is a typical coral atol, situated at the top of dead volcano. The highest point of the island has only 61 metres above sea level. The agriculture cannot be effected there, from the reason of bad soil and infested area. Further, limestone basement does not allow drawing of subterranean drinking water, so the water must be imported mostly from Australia.
Local population is mostly original, but great part of them is formed with immigrants from neighbouring states and islands and from Asia. It is an interesting fact that the average length of the life makes 62 years only. It is a consequence of bad way of life and bad life-style - first of all of boarding habits from time period, when all things were available free of charge. Most of local (30%) suffer from heavy diabetes, and this fact is really a world unique!
So, there is no chance for development of any tourist activity for the time being. To travel there, it is rather compolicated as local air-flight company (which owned one plain one) bankrupted. Despite the fact that very nice beaches with coral cliffs are available there, any other tourist infrastructure does not exist there at all. So, most of foodstuffs is necessary to be imported from Australia, If you decide to visit this island, one day, maximal two days for stay there are fully sufficient.
More information about this island you get in our articles NAURU I-V.
Next chapter: Tuvalu groups of islands and Bermuda Iskand.
Text: Jan Chaloupka
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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