GB: Anquilla - British Enclave In The Caribbean
The island of Anguilla is located in the Caribbean Sea in the north of the Lesser Antilles at a distance of 320 km east of Puerto Rico and 160 km east of the Virgin Islands. The archipelago includes the island of Anguilla itself, Sombrero, and Dog Scrab and many small islands. Total territorial area is 102 km ², Anguilla itself has 91 km ² and Sombrero with 5 km ². The capital city is the Valley.
The population of the midget size state according to guess from the year 2011 has around 15,094 inhabitants. According to the census of 2001 the vast majority of the population are descendants of Africans - around 90,1%, about 4,6% mulattos and kreolans, 3,7%, descendants of Europeans, and about 1,5% other ethnicity. Nearly 96% of the population lives on the island of Anguilla. Most of the inhabitants belong to the Anglican parish (29%), Methodists (23,9%), Protestants (30,2%) and Catholics (5,7%).
Anguilla is a British overseas territory with internal autonomy. The islands were colonized by the British colonists from the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis in 1650. By 1967, Anguilla was a separate British colony, was then associated with the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis into a single whole. In 1980 Anguilla became a separate British dependent territory.
The head of state is the Queen who is represented by a governor, which has a mandate for foreign policy, defence, enforcement of law and order and government services. The legal system is based on English law. The head of government is the Prime Minister appointed by the governor.
Legislative power is unicameral parliament of 11 members elected for 5 years.
The first people came to the islands around 3500 years ago. Archaeological excavations have indicated that the island of Anguilla was the centre of Indian civilization Aravaca. In 1493 the island was discovered by Christopher Columbus. In 1631 the Dutch colonized the island. The first permanent colony of Great Britain appeared in 1650 and the island remained a British colony today. In 1969, Anguilla declared independence, but power was restored to Great Britain with the help of military forces. In 1971 the island gained autonomy. Gradually, Anguilla has become a major exporter of tobacco, cotton and salt. At the beginning of the 19th century crisis has reduced the total population to 10,500 inhabitants and the island lost its meaning. Only in the late 20th century, the government here has decided to develop tourism. Since the time the Anguilla became one of the best resorts in the Caribbean with a developed road infrastructure. Tourists are attracted here beautiful coast, blue-green water, coral islands, and, moreover, thanks to the dry climate and the salt lakes of the island is also a great spa.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Photo: Roy Googin, Maksim, Magnus Manske
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