India: A Country Of Thousand Gods II.
So, Delhi became a capital of several old-time Indian Empires and, as well as big centre, situated along old merchant ways between North-West India and Indo-Ganga plainland. In Delhi, there are to be found many ancient and mediaeval monuments and archaeological finding places. The town was established by Emperor Sachdzachan (known under name of Sachduachanabad, at that time.At present, it is „Old Town“ or „Old Delhi“ or „Sahar“ - in Hindu/Urdu language - it means „a town“). Later, during 1649-1857 A.D., Delhi became a capital of Great Moguls´ Empire. Anyway, afterthat when Great Britain obtained India under its influence, Calcutta became a capital, till 1911, when King George V. ordered that Delhi would be capital again. So, this metropolis, New Delhi, was practically built within 1920-1930. When the country got the independence on British Government, New Delhi was declared as a capital and a Seat of Parliament at the same time.
Among historical monuments of Indian metropolis rise, first of all, the following sightseeings: famous Red Citadel (Lal Kala, 1639-1648) with great palace complex inside (from Great Moguls´ time-period) and Rang Mahal, „coloured“ palace, the ruins of ancient monument - Bhairona Church, Kutub Minar (Vijay Stambh - 1191-1370), the biggest tower in India, 72,5 metres high, Lalkota ruins, Purana Kila (Din Panah - 1530-1545) - „Old Citadel“, Radg Ghat Palace, Jantar Mantar (1725) - the oldest observatory of India, Rai Pitvora ruins, Jahaz Mahal complex (1229-1230), Char Minar Tower, Presidence Palace Rashtrapati Havan (1931) - the official President´s Residence, Ashoka Column (250 B.C., more than 12 metres high), made from one piece of sandstone, and also one of world´s wonders - non-rusty metallic column (895 B.C.), placed close to Kuvvat-ul-Islam Mosque, etc.
The town is completely full with churches of all world religions, placed next to each other. To most interesting buildings belong, first of all, Sis Gandg, Sikhs Church, Yogmayi Church (it is Krishna´s sister), Lakshmi-Narayan Church, Digambar Jain - Dzhainistic Church - (with unique „birds´ Hospital), Baptistic Church on Chandney Chowk (the oldest Christian Church of India), St. James Church (Church of England, 1836), Vihara - Buddhist Church (main Tibetan Church in metropolis), Lotus Bahaistic Church (1986), Goddess Kali Church in Kalkay (1764), etc.
Some majestic Mosques, such as: Juma Masjid (1650-1658), Kila-i-Kuhna (1545), Kher-ul-Minazel (1561), Moth Ki Masjid (a Mosque of one grain only - 16th century), the first Mosque Kuvvat-ul-Islam (Power of Islam - 1192-1198) are well-known as well. Delhi is very often named as „Mausoleum of the East“, owing to big number of monumental buildings, constructed for legendary leaders, governors and state representatives from the past. So, you can find there Adham Khan Mausoleum, a tomb of Shamsuddin Illtumysh (1235), Sultan Guri tomb (1230), or Humayun tomb (1565) - a jewel of Mongolian architecture.
Further, you can find and visit many museums in Delhi, such as: National Museum, National Gallery of Modern Art, Red Citadel Archaeological Museum, Dzavaharlal Nehru Museum („Tinmurti House“ - 1929-1930), Indira Gandhi Memorial, including famous „Cristal River“ (1988), National Handicrafts´ Museum, Tibet House Museum, Puppets´ International Museum, Music and Dance Academy, including original Musical Instruments´ Museum, ZOO-Garden (1959) - one of greatest and richest of the world. Next chapter: Amritsar, Agra and other places of interest of North India.
Next chapter: Amritsar, Agra and other places of interest of North India.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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