Malta: An Island State I.
In Malta lives around 408 000 inhabitants, their original ancestors were the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, which joined with Italians and other Mediterranean nations. The official languages in Malta are Maltese and English. In everyday life the people use a Semitic language like Arabic, which absorbed a great amount of Roman, Arabic and English structures. In Maltese also held judicial proceedings. In educative system dominates English. Literature the Maltese language is very rarely. According to religions there is more Roman Catholics (98%). Life expectancy is nearly 80 years. Malta is a parliamentary republic. The head of state is president elected by the parliament for 5 years. The president has right appoints the prime minister and cabinets members. House of Representatives is unicameral with 65 members. Capital city is Valletta.
Malta has very rich history, due to its strategic position has always been a subject of interest of various foreign powers. It is expected that in 5th century BC the island was inhabited by Neolithic tribes of Sicily. Later the island became the centre of highly developed civilizations and mysterious, after which left many monuments and buildings. The most famous of these in the temple of Hal Saflieni Hypogenum, built in the years between 3200 and 2900 BC. During excavations, archaeologists found the remains of about 6000 people buried along with ritual objects.
In 8th century BC the Phoenicians arrived on the islands. It gave them the name of the island. The name of Malta comes the Phoenician word “malate” – port, because in Malta were good ports. In the 6th century BC Malta was lead by Cartago all three hundred years and the island became an important maritime center and a major threat to Rome. In 218 BC during the Second Punic War, Roman Empire managed to expel the Carthaginians from the island. During the Roman government in the new era, the spread of Christianity in Malta.
According to legends, it expended the apostle Paul, who after a trip to Rome failed. During his stay in Malta, Paul healed the father of Publius ruler, founded the Christian community and the first bishop named Publius. In 870 the Arabs conquered the islands and after they had a major impact on the economy, culture and language of the local population. Irragation system introduced here, which will significantly increase crop yields. During this period in Malta strengthened Islam. In 1090 the Normans conquered the island and later Malta became a part of the Sicilian kingdom. It meant restoring the connection with Europe, economic development and return to Christianity. In the 13th century the Spaniards conquered Malta, over the next three centuries flourished archipelago, the island are grown wheat, cotton, cumin, which is exported to Europe, the crafts were developed. In 1530 the Spanish King Charles V. gave Malta Hospitaller order which was renamed to Maltese law. Because he wanted protect the island against the Turks, began to fortify it. In 1565 with support from the Spanish army repelled a Turkish invasion order. In 1566 Grand Master Jean Parisot order de la Valette founded a new city – Valletta, the fortress hewn in the rocks.
In 1788 near the Malta coast stopped the French fleet of Napoleon´s army. Grandmaster Procedure surrendered without resistance and as agreed order was to leave the island. The initial enthusiasm was replaced by Maltese anger, because the French invaders looted churches and palaces, introduced new taxes. Already in September, residents rose up and proclaimed the Republic of Gozo and requested the assistance of British Admiral Nelson. After long blocade Nelson ruled over Malta was established a British protectorate. Malta was under British rule until 1964, when it was proclaimed its independence. In 2004 was accepted into the EU.
Text: Maxim Kucer
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