Monaco: The European Casino I.
The Principality of Monaco belongs to one of smallest states of the world. It is situated in South Europe, along coast of Mediterranean, close to the border of France and Italy. Its surface makes 1,95 square kilometres only. Monaco is so called town-state, which involves four connected quarters, such as: Monaco Ville (Old Town), Monte Carlo, La Condamine (business centre and the port) and Fontvieille (industrial zone).
So, Monaco capital, spreaded along flat rocky plain, has three thousands of inhabitants. Till now, the city preserved its ancient character. As the main sightseeings, these are: Princely Palace Complex - constructed sinced 13th up to 19th century, famous Oceanographic Museum, Antrophological Museum and a Cathedral of 19th century. La Condamine is inhabitated with most population of this state. You can find there sea port, National Library Building and a stadium. Monte Carlo is world-known with their casinos.
Monaco is a Constitutional Hereditary Monarchy (Principality), with a Prince as a Head of State. Since 1949 till 2005, Prince Rainier III. from Grimaldi Parentage, ruled there. This dynasty is the oldest one of the whole European Continent. In 1997, the dynasty celebrated its 700th anniversary. After Rainier´s death, the rule was taken over by Prince Albert II. Monaco legislative power belongs to Prince and National Council (Parliament), formed with 18 deputies. The Parliament elections are effected on base of general electoral law. All citizens, from 21 years of age, have it, by direct voting, and it is valid for time period of five years. The citizen of Monaco could be elected as National Council Deputy, who was exclusively born in Monaco and reached 25 years of age.
The executive power belongs to so called Government Council, led by State Minister (this position is regularly taken by French diplomat, French citizen). Monaco Government Council, consisted of seven members, has its meetings minimally twice a year. During their session, at Prince´s active participation, different international agreements, requests, regarding granting Monacocitizenship and other state affairs are negotiated. According to the Constitution of 1962, the Prince keeps his right to present all suggestions of laws but he is not entitled to stop the validity of the Constitution. All laws (acts) are accepted by Monaco National Council. In accordance with the Agreement with France of 1918, in case that Monaco will miss his throne-successor, the country will be declared as an autonomy state of France.
Monaco law system is based on French Law system The judicature is consisted of Court of the first instance, Courts of Conciliation as well as Courts of Appeal. Even so called Chief Administartion Court is existing there, with five members and two assessors, nominated by the Prince for time period of four years. Monaco has also police members, but the army troops are missing, except so called King´s Guard, with their 65 members. So, the defence of the state is fully in hands of France.
Monaco is situated at south outskirts of Littoral Alps Mountains. The climate is Mediterranean with comparatively warm winter (average temperature in winter is + 8-10 °C) and dry, warm and sunny summer. Littoral (Sea-coast) Alps protect Monaco against cold winds from the North.
The original inhabitants – Monegasks – form 16% of the original population. the Frenchmen form 47%, the Italians – 16%, the british – 4%, the Belgians – 2% and the Swiss – 1%.
As an official language – it is French, as a conversation language could be taken for Monegas dialect (it is a „mixture of French and Liguria dialect of Italian), but you can frequently meet English and Italian.
Most of local inhabitants confess Roman Catholic faith (90%). Monaco has even its Catholic Bishop, but you can meet there also Protestant Church.
Next Chapter: Monaco History and its Specialities
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation. ing. Jan Jonáš
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