Monaco: The European Casino II.
Monaco became famous through various exhibitions, competitions as well as festivals of European or world level. So, in January, an International Circus Festival and Monte Carlo Automobile Rallye are regularly taken place there. In February, International TV Festival and Imagine - European Saloon of Multimedial Creation, are organized in Monaco. At the beginning of March, the events are followed by Magic Awards Festival, and Opera Saison is open. Most of actions are pressed in April. It its, for instance: Pink Ball, Monte Carlo Spring Art Festival, Tennis International Championship, Modern Culture Festival, Dog Breeds International Exhibition, etc. In May, the International Grand Prix Formule 1 are taken place, and in similar way, we could continue till the end of the year.
The histroy of colonization of this locality starts in 10th century B.C. The first community was founded by Phoenitians. During the existence of Roman Empire, the way was started from there, leading to Marseille. In the course of the first Christians´ era, a boat landed to the coast, bearing the body of martyred Christian Devote. Later, this woman was declared as Principality Patron. After Roamns, the Barbarians and Arabs ruled there, and later, this area was under hegemony of Genova Principality.
The Grimaldi Parentage got their power in 1297, when a detachemnt, led by Frank Grimaldi conquested a citadel, dominated from their rivals from Genova. Frank, changed as a monk, entered the citadel and opened a gate for his soldiers from his section. As a memory to this event, Monaco escutcheon pictures two monks swinging with swords.
In the course of several coming centuries, the citadel, as well as Monaco port, had a great importance as a stop on Mediterranean merchant trips. So, the Principality became a tilt-yard, where the European Kingdoms rivalled with their influence above this region. Anyway, the Princes did their best to keep Monaco independence, looking for their protection, alternately at Duke of Savoia or at France or at Spain.
However, French Revolution rid of Grimaldi Family their power as well as their wealth, and put them into prison consequently. In 1793, a convent decided that the Principality would be joined to France. Nevertheless, after Napoleon´s fall in 1814 or 1815, Monaco independence as well as all rights of Grimaldi Family were renewed. So, the Principality was handed over to protection of Sardinia Kingdom. In 1861, Prince Charles III came to an understanding with France that, as a change for greater part of his territory, he would obtain the indenepdence and an amount of four millions of Francs. So, the Principality lost all their natural sources and decided to develop tourist activities and business in hazard branch. In 1863, a society „Societe des Bains de Mer“ was established, which included hotels, theatre and casino. This area was named as Monte Carlo.
Next chapter: Monaco Sightseeings
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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