Nauru Island I.
Nauru Island is placed in south-west part of Pacific Ocean, 41 kms distant from meridian, between Kiribati and Solomon Islands. The country is a member of Commonwealth.
Nauru Island is situated quite far from other island-states of the region. So, its nearest neighbours are Banaba Island and Kiribati group of islands, Nukumanu atol (Papua-New Guinea, approx. distance 1300 kms) and Ontong Java atol (Solomon Islands, approx. distance 1500 kms) on south-west, further, Kapingamarangi atol (USA, Caroline Islands, approx.distance 1900 kms) on north-west and Ebon atol (Marshall Islands, approx.distance 1600 kms) in north. Nearly 4000 kms of open water space, sometimes cut with coral atols, divides Nauru Island from nearest Australian town of Brisbane.
The surface of this country makes 21,2 square kilometres only. The island does not have its capital, nevertheless, all authorities and offices are concentrated in Yaren area. Nauru Island is situated practically on the equator. The average month temperatures move from + 28°C up to + 34°C, and it is changing very little in the course of the year. So, daily hot could reach, owing to vegetace absence and very strong warming of rock basement from glowing rays, even + 38 - 41 °C, whereas in the course of the night it is a bit colder. During time period, from March up to October, when north-east winds (monsoons) are blowing, the air temperature drops to 3-4° C, but at the coast only.
Yearly precipitation makes 2500 mm approx. However, since November till February, cyclone periode prevails, the weather is very wet (humid) and the island is nearly sunk in rain. On the other hand, the rest of the year, dry periods prevail, owing to lack of vegetace and soil character.
Total population number of Nauru Island makes 14019 persons (2009, estimate). Prevailing part of population is formed by Nauru (58%), the rest are Melanesians (26%), Chinese (8%) and Europeans (8%).
Nauru (Nauru Republic) is an independent Parliament Republic. President is a Head of state and government, elected from Parliament Deputies lines, for a period of three years. Government members are nominated by Presidentm from Parliament members. Actual President of Nauru Republic, elected in December 2007, is Marcus Stephen, great sportsman. One-Chamber Parliament is a legislative authority (18 deputies are elected in all districts, during general elections, for time period of three years). From formal point of view, political parties are missing in the country. All deputies are elected as independent ones, but all associations are formed on base of family or sects traditions. Since 1992, Nauri Island Council (NIC) is acting in the country, which has its advisory status, looking after traditions´maintaining. From administrative point of view, the island is divided in 14 districts. Nauru language and English are the official languages in the island.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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