Nauru Islands III.
Geological structure of the island is unusual. Before the Europeans came, the island was characteristic as gigantic phosphate „cup“, situated on footing, made from volcanic and sedimented minerals. The whole island is surrounded with coral atol, falling down, from the part of the ocean, precipitously into big depth. (the island is surrounded with Melanese basin from all parts), whereas, from the other part, it is raising moderately towards a belt of coastal plain (its width makes 150-300 metres). In backround, a central Topside plateau is to be found (altitude 61 metres above sea level).
However, 100 years lasting phosphates´ excavation caused that practically all central plateau changed into infertile industrial countryside, torn to pieces with tens of mines and quarries. From massif table-lands, remained rising knots of coral limestone, even 15 metres high. All phosphate finding places are digged into its base. Glowing sunshines warm a little the layers of stones, and so, they create special micro-climate of this central plateau: the sun disperses the clouds, and so it reinforces chronical lack of water in the island.
As a result, the whole central part of Nauru was changed into antropogen desert. So, the countryside changed, with full support of mankind, from its original state to the desert. Only small green belt around Buada lagoon, and narrow vegetace belt along ocean coast (where most of population is living) rather beautifies sadness of local countryside. The rivers or other nature flows are missing here, even low waters are not to be found there at all, as most of them were destroyed during phosphates´ mining.
Nevertheless, nearly 60 sorts of plants could be registered there. Nor any plant is of local origin, all sorts were imported there by man. So, fertile soil around Buada lagoon is very suitable for bananas, pine-apples or vegetable growing. On coral knots, small layers of younger copse are to be found. Nevertheless, the birds present the main Nauru symbol, you can watch there at least twenty sorts. Moreover, very rare bird is living in the island, its name is Nauru sedgewarblewr. Apart of this, local inhabitants frequently keep small frigates (national symbol ) as standard home-animal. No wonder, as in past, during past centuries, these domesticated birds caught fish for ancestors of actual inhabitants.
As far as the other animals is concerned, these are scarced. They are: hundreds of sorts of insects and crabs, typical and traditional animals for this region. All other animals (island rats, pigs or dogs) were imported there by man.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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