Sakhalin And Curils Islands I.
The extention of Sachalin area is 87,1 thousands of square kilometres.Sachalin Island itself has 78 thousands of square kilometres. The island is separated from the continent by Tartar Straits and Nevelsky Straits, from south it is separated by Hokkaido Island (Japan) by La Perouse Straits. The island is washed out by warm waters of Japan and cold waters of Ochotsk Sea. At view from universe, the island reminds a fish. Kurils group of islands involve more than 30 greater islands (they are Iturup, Paramushir, Kunashir and Urup) and numerous quantity of small islands and rocks, spreading from Hokkaido Island (Japan) up to Kamchatka Peninsula, separating Ochotsk Sea from Pacific Ocean. Deep straits Bousolle and Kruzenstern divide the islan three groups, forming Great Curils, such as: north islands (Shumsu, Paramushir, Atlas, Ancifer, Makanrushi, Onekotan, Ekarma, Charimkotan, Shiaskotan, Chirinkotan, etc.), central islands (Matua, Rasshua, Ketoy, Simushir, etc.) and south islands (Black Brothers, Broughton, Urup, Iturup, Kunashir).
In a distance of 60 kms from south group of islands, there are to be found, separated by South -Curils straits, so called Small Curils Islands, containing of six islands. The greatest of them is those of Shikotan.
State frontier among Russia and Japan leads just via La Perouse, Kunashir, Izmeny and Soviet Straits. The banks of Sachalin Island are a little rough, the bays are to be found in south and central parts of islands-group only. Its east part is characteristic with its harmonious coast lines and numerous clefts, situated in river-mouths surging in the sea.
The surface of Sachalin Island is very montaneous. Overwhelming majority of its territory is formed with high mountains. In east part of the island, East-Sachalin Mountains are to be found, spreading from low flow of Tym-river up to Patience Peninsula, with the highest peak of Sachalin - Lopatin Mountain (1609 m). In its west part, there are not too high West-Sachalin Mountain Range (the highest peak Navrat - 1325 m), spreading from Krilon Cap up to Chunmakta-river. In south part of the island, Susunay and Tonino-Ansky Mountain Ranges are situated. The plain lands are placed among the mountains (Tym-Poronay, Susanay, Muravyow, etc.). These areas are frequently swampy and interwoven with many rivers.
North part of Sachalin Island is formed with North-Sachalin central plain-land and coastal low grounds in west and east, separated with two relatively low mountain ridges from each other (up to 600 m height)Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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