Till 1960, two colonies, the British and Italian ones, existed in the territory of Somalia. Later, Great Britain left the region of British Somaliland, with a target to join British territory with Italian one and create new state in Somalia. However, in 1969, the putsch, led by Mohammed Siad Barre, was effected in the country. New regime introduced autoritative socialist direction. This fact meant a stabilization of the country for more than twenty years, till 1991. In this year, Siad Barre´s dictatoship was dethroned, and civil war with anarchy broke out in the country.
In May 1991, north clans declared Somaliland, an independent republic, which involves at present the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag and Sool. Although this state was not acknowledged with any government, its existence is lasting, and the country is making its effort to create constitutional democracy, including execution to establish general Parliament as well as Presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal and North Mudug belong to the neighbouring state of Puntland (which declared its autonomy in 1998). However, Puntland is not headed for the independence and is taking the steps, destined for the reconstruction of legitime government, but civic riots complicate the whole situation. Puntland is effecting territorial disputes regarding frontier with Somaliland and also, the area is claiming some parts of Sool and Sanaag, easter regions.
Since 1993, during two years of presence of United Nations units in the country, there was managed, mainly in the south, to slow down the starvation. Nevertheless, in 1995, when the area suffered from great losses, United Nations units left the area, and the order was not re-newed. So, two years´ lasting peace process, under leadership of Kenya Government, and under protection of Institute Government Office for Development (IGAD) in October 2004, was terminated afterthat, when Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected as a Chairman of temporary Federal Government (TFG). Transitory Federal Authorities, including 275-member Parliament, known as Temporary Federal Assembly (TFA) was established. At the end of 2008, President Yusuf left his post, whereas United Nations´ Organization supported the talks among Temporary Federal Government and opposition (ARS), effected in Djibouti.
In January 2009, when the Government of National Units was established, the Ethiopian military forces left the country (they entered Somalia in December 2006) as a support of Temporary Federal Government. The Parliament elected new President - Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, and consequently, the President Sharif nominated Omar Abdirashid al-Sharmake (son of former Somalian President) as Preime Minister. So, these temporary Federal Authorities are based on temporary Federal Constitution (TFC) which would be valid for five years, till new constitution will be established and new elections will be declared. Nevertheless, in January 2009, the validity of this temporary constitution was prolonged till 2011, when new elections are to be organized.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Translation: ing. Jan Jonáš
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