Ukraine: Kiev - Michajlovsky Golden peak Temple - the dominant of Orthodox Church
In 1108 the grandson of Yaroslav Moudrý - Svatopluk Iziaslavič founded in Kiev in place of the old monastery Dmitrijevského Michajlovsky Monastery (Michajlivskyj Zolotoverchnyj Sobor). In the same year in honour of the victory over Polovec began with the construction of the main temple on the cliff of Old Kiev Mountains, which was named as Archangel Michael. In 1113 Michajlovsky temple was consecrated and became the burial place of several generations of Kiev princes.
Michajlovsky Temple got the name Golden peak, because it was the only church in Kiev, which had a gilded dome. Inside the temple was decorated with marble, mosaic and were housed rare icons. In 1113 here from Constantinople, received the remains of the martyr St. Barbara, and became the center of the sanctuary. During Soviet rule, before the destruction of the Temple Michajlovského, balances were transferred Vladimirskému temple, where they remain. In 1114 there was buried Prince Svatopluk. One hundred years later, in 1240, the temple was looted and damaged Mongol-Tatar hordes of Batu Khan.
The biggest changes have happened in the 17th - 18 century, when on the development and improvement of the temple in large part were contributed by Ukrainian hetmans - in 1718, Bohdan Khmelnitsky in their funds has changed the gilt dome of the central temple, the hetman Skoropadský arranged new iconostasis and Ivan Mazepa donated the monastery chandelier with lots of candles and a silver chest for relics of St. Barbara.
In the 17th and 18 century temple was reconstructed several times. From the three sides were surrounded by outbuildings and one place were built a seven domes. Facade of the temple was decorated with stucco decorations from the workshop of Kiev architect Grigorovich-Barsky. Pressures of drums were decorated with friezes original majolica. Michajlovsky temple have got the biggest glory through mosaics and frescoes from the painter, monk of Kiev- Pecer monastery of Alimpija.
Part of the frescoes and mosaics has been preserved, mainly in the Sofia cathedral in Kiev, the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow and Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, but during the reconstruction of the temple of the frescoes and mosaics were returned to Michajlovsky collection. From the temple decoration was conserved a two slate desks showed bouncing riders. One of them is consider as St. George and the other a saint Dimitrija. Some scientists argued that they are depicted rulers or members of the royal retinue.
At the end of the 20th century began a large restoration of Michajlovsky temple. Contemporary historians, painters and sculptors had to study old techniques of their craft to effect reconstruction of the faithful. Restoring of Michajlovsky temple was completed in 1998 and the official opening was in 1999. In 2000, the central part Michajlovsky temple was opened for visitors and church services in 2001 were opened Varvarinsky and Jekaterinsky extension as well.
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