New Caledonia (Nouvelle Caledonia) II.
The park has great areas of araucarias (these are coniferous of green colours) and kauri-south damaroni (you can find there gigantic tree - „Great Kauri“ - the age of which is estimated to 1000 years) as well as rich animals´ empire. Very rare sorts are living there - such as rainbow alexander (category of parrot) or tufted kagu (Caledonian symbol).
New Caledonia has approx. 249 thousands of inhabitants. The Canacs (43% of total population) are original people. It is Melanesian nation. Their ancestors came there probably from Papua and New Guinea Island. Further, the Europeans are living there (mostly Frenchmen - 31%) and the rest comes from French Polynesia and Asia (first of all, from China and Vietnam). James Cook was the first European who visited the island. It happened in 1774. The island got its name in according with Caledonia, old Roman name for Scotland.
In 1793, the island was visited by Bruni d´Entrecasteaux, the first Frenchman. Later, in 1840, the first French Catholic mission was established there, amd finally, in 1853, France colonized New Caledonia Islands. Naturally, this was bad situation for Canacs. They started to revolt against such colonial supremacy. Within 1864-1897, sentenced criminals were brought there. Later, at the end of 20th century, the development, being intented on New Caledonia liberation, was created. In 1988, the negotiations between Canacs and Frenchmen started. Finally, in 1998, the agreement was reached that subsequently, within next comung future 15-20 years, the responsability will be giving from France to New Caledonian Authorities. This agreement is obligatory for France, especially in a fact that in the course of 2013-2018, at least three referendums will bve effected, where the question regarding full sovereignty and independence will be definitely solved.
Since 1946, New Caledonia obtained a status of French Oversea Territory. Till November 1984, the state was in charge of high commissioner, nominated by French Government. In 1984, New Caledonia got its internal autonomy. Later, in 1987, a referendum was organized. 98% of participated electors agreed with a fact that New Caledonia would be kept as a part of France.
New Caledonia is divided into three provinces, such as: Iles Loyaute, Nord and Sud. Each of them is admistrated by Province Assembly (elected by means of direct voting for time period of six years), responsible for economical development, agriculture and culture. The representants of three province assemblies from territorial Congress (54 depuities). Local autonomy is formed with 32 towns´ representatives. Eight national sections, administrated with advice commitees of original inhabitants have a special jurisdiction, including Central Commitee of original population.
High Commissioner of France is a representative in New Caledonia. He is nominated by French Government. Nevertheless, the executive power is being effected by means of High Commissioner, in cooperation with a Territorial Congress Chairman and chairmen of provincial assemblies. New Caledonia is represented in French Parliament with two deputies of National Assembly and with one Senator.
Text: Maxim Kucer
Transaltion: ing. Jan Jonáš
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